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Por Ecosol em 10/03/2022
Microinversor ou inversor string: qual é a melhor escolha para você?

Para aqueles que não sabem, microinversor e inversor string são tipos de inversores que convertem a energia gerada pelos painéis fotovoltaicos, de corrente contínua para corrente alternada, utilizada nas residências e comércios. Ambos os equipamentos são utilizados com a mesma finalidade e representam uma parte fundamental dos kits solares fotovoltaicos, uma vez que os dois são indicados para diferentes fins, seja uma instalação de uso comercial, residencial ou industrial.

No entanto, de acordo com especialistas do setor, apesar dos aparelhos possuírem funcionamento similar dentro de um projeto de geração de energia, cada um tem suas características específicas, que devem ser levadas em consideração na hora da escolha.

Inversor String

A principal diferença entre o microinversor e o inversor string é a forma como é feita a ligação dos painéis fotovoltaicos no sistema.

 

O inversor string trabalha com a função de maximização de energia.

 

Algumas fileiras de cabos (ou “strings”) dos painéis são ligadas ao inversor, que será responsável por encontrar o ponto máximo de geração do sistema ao longo do dia. Esse modelo pode suportar uma grande quantidade módulos (fileiras) e trabalha muito bem tanto com alta como baixa tensão. Além disso, em alguns casos, é possível expandir a potência total do sistema mediante instalação de mais placas, desde que a capacidade máxima do inversor não seja ultrapassada.

 

Em média, os inversores string devem ser posicionados em locais com pouca interferência climática. Embora possuam proteção IP65, o ideal é que estejam bem acondicionados, para garantir seu perfeito funcionamento. O tempo médio de garantia é de cerca de 5 anos, a depender de cada fabricante.

 

Para o monitoramento, utiliza-se um dispositivo de conexão à internet - que envia as informações de geração de energia, além de tensão e corrente a uma plataforma em tempo real - conectado diretamente no inversor. Além disso, é possível acompanhar no painel de LED dados relevantes sobre o funcionamento do sistema, onde não houver internet disponível.

 

Esse tipo de tecnologia apresenta a melhor relação custo-benefício em locais onde não há incidência de sombreamento ou muitos caimentos de telhado, por maximizar o funcionamento das placas em uniformidade.

 

Microinversor

Os microinversores também são conversores de corrente, porém com funcionamento e conexão diferentes dos modelos string. Neles, no máximo 04 módulos são ligados diretamente ao equipamento.

 

Os microinversores apresentam uma conexão muito mais prática, por não demandarem espaço além do telhado, uma vez que eles são conectados diretamente na estrutura de fixação das placas.

Esse tipo de equipamento maximiza a geração de energia em locais onde há algum sombreamento parcial do telhado, uma vez que os modelos mais recentes possuem ligação individual, limitando somente a produção da(s) placa(s) afetadas pelo sombreamento, porém sem comprometer todo o sistema.

 

Esse tipo de conexão também permite o monitoramento individual da geração de energia de cada painel instalado. Isso otimiza o tempo em eventuais manutenções, uma vez que é fácil identificar qual ou quais placas apresentam mau funcionamento. Ainda sobre o monitoramento, este também é feito com um único dispositivo que, conectado a todos os microinversores, envia os dados de geração de cada placa a uma plataforma que apresenta o compilado de informações. Diferentemente dos modelos string, os microinversores não permitem a coleta de informações relevantes sem conexão à internet, uma vez que estão posicionados na estrutura de fixação dos módulos e por não possuírem visor em LED.

 

Expansões da potência total do sistema também são possíveis quando se utilizam microinversores. Porém, é importante observar que somente um máximo de 04 placas podem ser conectadas a cada microinversor. Ou seja, em um eventual aumento de placas, o cliente provavelmente também precisará adquirir mais microinversores, além dos novos módulos e estruturas. Isso pode aumentar substancialmente o custo com os novos equipamentos.

 

Os microinversores possuem proteção IP66, que os permite enfrentar condições climáticas mais intensas do que o modelo string.

 

Exatamente por esse motivo, esses dispositivos podem ser instalados diretamente na estrutura de fixação dos módulos. Além disso, as principais fabricantes de microinversores oferecem garantias em torno de 25 anos, uma vez que há a utilização de diversos aparelhos em uma mesma instalação, cobrindo uma eventual estatística de que “quanto mais equipamentos, maiores as chances de apresentarem defeitos”.

 

Por disporem de uma tecnologia de otimização da geração de energia em locais com sombreamento e um período de garantia maior, os sistemas que utilizam microinversores ainda se mostram potencialmente mais caros do que os modelos com inversores string.

 

Porém, essa diferença de valores se justifica completamente em instalações com diversos posicionamentos (telhados muito “recortados”, por exemplo) ou quando há incidência de sombras parciais de antenas, árvores ou prédios próximos.

 

Embora tenhamos explicado as principais diferenças entre cada um dos inversores, é fundamental ressaltar que essas particularidades variam muito. Assim, recomenda-se a avaliação de um especialista para saber qual é melhor opção para sua instalação.

 

Portanto, esse tipo de tecnologia apresenta a melhor relação custo-benefício em locais com alguma incidência de sombreamento ou muitos caimentos de telhado, por maximizar o funcionamento das placas individualmente.

Fale conosco e saiba como podemos ajudar você!

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